Uluslararası İlişkiler Konseyi

İzlenceler / SYLLABI

Modern Diplomacy – İsmail Erkam Sula

Okuma Süresi: 6 dk.

Eğitmen: Dr. Ismail Erkam Sula
Dersin Verildiği Okul: Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi
Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Ders Kodu: INRE-401


I use my e-mail actively and recommend you do so since certain important class announcements will be made through email. Any questions sent to me by email will receive a response within three business days, or during the following class. E-mails must: contain your name, be written in proper English, and have the course code and name in the subject line. (Example: Erkam Sula – INRE503: About This Week’s Readings)


This class is designed to introduce international relations (IR) students to modern diplomacy. The course deals with the origin and growth of diplomacy in order to help students better understand the world diplomatic history and system. In doing so, it also examines various types of diplomatic conduct. It looks at the past and future of diplomacy and illustrates certain mechanism to conduct international negotiations.


  • The course assumes prior knowledge of IR theories, concepts and familiarity with IR scholarship.
  • According to the regulations of the University it is compulsory to attend at least 70 percent of the classes. However, for a full grasp of the course you are expected to attend ALL CLASSES. 
  • Please come to class well-prepared by reading the chapters and articles of the week. Otherwise, you will not be able to understand the debates and receive certain grade penalties.
  • You will not receive the instructor’s presentation slides. Voice recording and taking pictures without the instructor’s consent is not allowed and will be regarded as a serious violation of class rules. Make sure you take proper lecture notes.
  • Paper and other assignment deadlines are announced in this syllabus. Any change (unlikely) in the deadlines will be announced through email or in-class. There will be no extensions to the deadlines.
  • DO NOT PLAGIARIZE: If you plagiarize from your previously submitted works, or from the work of others in your written assignments, you will receive a failing grade of 0 for the assignment. 


Students are expected to accumulate grade points by reading course materials, attending classes, participating in class seminar discussions and completing certain assignments. The percentage that a student can collect from each grade component is as follows: 

1. Participation & Attendance: Total Grade Points: 20%

Each week, student attendance and participation will be graded. Students are expected to attend ALL CLASSES and answer/pose questions about weekly readings and discuss with peers in seminar sessions. Every student is expected to read ALL must READINGS every week. The course is designed to follow a graduate seminar style where student actively engage in discussion with their peers. Please do not forget that it is compulsory to attend at least 70 percent (10 weeks) of the classes.

2. Student Presentations 20%

Each student will choose a reading from the further readings of the weekly course plan below, summarize that reading and answer a couple of questions posed by the instructor in class. Student performance will be assessed and graded by the instructor. After the class the students are expected to submit a written summary of the chosen reading.

Mid-term Exam: 20%

The Mid-term exam will cover the first half of the course topics. See weekly course plan below.

3. Final Exam: Total Grade Points: 40 %

The final exam will cover all topics covered in-class. Students will be asked to write one essay, define a couple of key concepts or answer a couple of Short-answer questions. 


This course will follow a couple of books, certain chapters from others and research articles. Please ask for the course reader to the instructor. The required readings are listed in the weekly course plan below. Please also see the course readings – bibliography section at the end of the syllabus.

Week 1 – ACADEMIC ETHICS & INTEGRITY (24 September 2019)
 Introduction to INRE 401
-Syllabus, course rules, and assignment and a short lecture on academic honesty & plagiarism. 

Readings & Lecture: Definitions and legal regulations on Plagiarism:
-Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Etik Kurul Yönergesi
-Yükseköğretim Kurumları Bilimsel Araştırma ve Yayın Etiği Yönergesi
-Harvard Handbook for Students – Academic Integrity and Academic Dishonesty
-Turnitin White Paper: The Plagiarism Spectrum 
Short Lecture (1st Hour):  On diplomacy and its evolution. 

Must Readings: 
-(McKercher 2014, xv–35)

Further Reading:
-(Nicolson 2001, 1–93)

In-class discussion (2nd and 3rd Hours)
-Class reflections on weekly readings
-What do you understand from diplomacy? 
Week 3 – THEORIZING DIPLOMACY (October 8th)
 Must Readings:
-(McKercher 2014, 15–28)

Further Reading:
-(Homans 2011)
-(Mapendere 2005)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style:
-Student summaries of the weekly readings
-Track one and a half’ & ‘Track II’ diplomacy?  
Must Readings: 
-(Putnam 1988)

Further Reading:
-(Fisher, Ury, and Patton 2011)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style:
-Student Summaries of the weekly readings
-Discuss Putnam’s ‘Two-Level Game’

Short Lecture: On ‘bargaining power’ in international negotiations.
Must Readings:
-(Claude 1958)
-(Berridge 2010, 142–60)

Further Reading:
-(Kaufmann 2016)* (Walker 2004)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style (1st and 2nd Hour):
-Student Reflections on readings
-Student presentations of the chosen readings

Short Lecture: On Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam. Conferences to end the Second World War.  
Week 6 – SUMMIT DIPLOMACY (October 29th)
Must Readings: 
-(Melissen 2003)
-(Berridge 2010, 161–78)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style:
-Student Reflections on readings
-Student presentations of the chosen reading
Must Readings:
-(Cavelty and Mauer 2009, 404–14)
-(Jervis 2013)

Further Reading:
-(Schelling 2008)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style (1st and 2nd Hour):
-Student Reflections on readings
-Student presentations of the chosen reading

Short Lecture:  To prepare students for the mid-term exam 
Week 8 – MIDTERM- NO CLASS THIS WEEK (November 12th)
 Midterm Exam 
Week 9 – PERSONALITY AND DIPLOMACY (November 19th)
Must Readings: 
-(Byman and Pollack 2001)
-(Sharp 2001)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style (1st and 2nd Hour):
-Student reflections on readings.
-Student presentations of the chosen reading.

Short Lecture: On Classical Realist IR theory and prestige in international relations.
Week 10 – PUBLIC DIPLOMACY (November 26th)
Must Readings: 
-(Berridge 2010, 179–91)

Further Reading:
-(Rana 2011)
-(Melissen 2005)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style (1st and 2nd Hour):
-Student reflections on readings.
-Student presentations of the chosen reading.

Short Lecture:  On ‘winning the hearts and minds’ of the people & on Turkey’s public diplomacy endeavors. 
Week 11 – CULTURAL DIPLOMACY (December 3rd)
Must Readings:
-(Mark 2009)

Further Reading:
-(Nye 2004)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style (1st and 2nd Hour):
-Student reflections on readings.
-Student presentations of the chosen reading.

Short Lecture: On Turkey’s Cultural diplomacy institutions.  
 Must Readings:
-(Langhorne 2000)

Further Reading:
-(Langhorne 2005)
-(Kelley 2010)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style (1st and 2nd Hour):
-Student reflections on readings.
-Student presentations of the chosen reading.

Short Lecture: On current foreign policy strategy of Turkey’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 
Week 13 – THE FUTURE OF DIPLOMACY (December 17th)
 Must Readings:
-(Murray et al. 2011)

Further Reading:
-(Manojlovic and Thorheim 2007)
-(Henrikson 2005)

In-Class Discussion – Seminar Style:
-Student reflections on readings.
-Student presentations of the chosen reading.
Week 14 – WRAP-UP (December 24th)
-No Readings this week 
-In-class discussion about what we have learned this far. Some final discussions about the Final Exam 
Week 15 – FINAL EXAM
 Exact date will be announced by the university. 


Berridge, G R. 2010. Diplomacy: Theory and Practice Fourthe Edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan. .

Byman, Daniel L., and Kenneth M. Pollack. 2001. “Let Us Now Praise Great Men: Bringing the Statesman Back In.” International Security. https://doi.org/10.1162/01622880151091916.

Cavelty, M D, and V Mauer. 2009. The Routledge Handbook of Security Studies. London: Taylor & Francis.

Claude, Inis L. 1958. “Multilateralism—Diplomatic and Otherwise.” International Organization. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300008390.

Fisher, R, W L Ury, and B Patton. 2011. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Penguin Publishing Group.

Henrikson, Alan K. 2005. “The Future of Diplomacy? Five Projective Visions.” Clingendael Discussion Paper in Diplomacy.

Homans, Charles. 2011. “Track II Diplomacy: A Short History.” Foreign Policy.

Jervis, Robert. 2013. “Getting to Yes with Iran the Challenges of Coercive Diplomacy.” Foreign Affairs.

Kaufmann, J. 2016. Conference Diplomacy: An Introductory Analysis Third Revised Edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Kelley, John Robert. 2010. “The New Diplomacy: Evolution of a Revolution.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 21 (2): 286–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/09592296.2010.482474.

Langhorne, Richard. 2000. “Full Circle: New Principals and Old Consequences in the Modern Diplomatic System.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 11 (1): 33–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/09592290008406140.

———. 2005. “The Diplomacy of Non-State Actors.” Diplomacy & Statecraft 16 (2): 331–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/09592290590948388.

Manojlovic, Marija, and Celia Helen Thorheim. 2007. Crossroads of Diplomacy: New Challenges, New SolutionsClingendael Diplomacy Papers.

Mapendere, Jeffrey. 2005. “Track One and a Half Diplomacy and the Complementarity of Tracks.” Culture of Peace Online Journal. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Mark, Simon. 2009. “A Greater Role for Cultural Diplomacy.” Discussion Paper – Netherlands Institute of International Relations “Clingendeal.”

McKercher, B.J.C., ed. 2014. Routledge Handbook of Diplomacy and Statecraft. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203807804.

Melissen, Jan. 2003. “Summit Diplomacy Coming of Age.” In Discussion Papers in Dıplomacy, edited by Spencer Mawby. Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael.’

———. 2005. “Wielding Soft Power: The New Public Diplomacy.” Clingendael Diplomacy Papers.

Murray, Stuart, Paul Sharp, Geoffrey Wiseman, David Criekemans, and Jan Melissen. 2011. “The Present and Future of Diplomacy and Diplomatic Studies.” International Studies Review. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2486.2011.01079.x.

Nicolson, H. 2001. The Evolution of Diplomatic Method. Leicester: University of Leicester.

Nye, Joseph S. 2004. Soft Power: The Means To Success In World Politics. New York: PublicAffairs.

Putnam, Robert D. 1988. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games Introduction: The Entanglements of Domestic and International Politics.” Source: International Organization. https://doi.org/10.2307/2706785.

Rana, K S. 2011. 21st-Century Diplomacy: A Practitioner’s Guide. Key Studies in Diplomacy. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Schelling, Thomas C. 2008. Arms and InfluenceArms and Influence. New Haven and London: Yale University.

Sharp, Paul. 2001. “Making Sense of Citizen Diplomats: The People of Duluth, Minnesota, as International Actors.” International Studies Perspectives 2 (2): 131–50. http://www.jstor.org/stable/44218155.

Walker, R. 2004. Multilateral Conferences: Purposeful International Negotiation. Studies in Diplomacy and International Relations. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

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